After upgrading a 4.4 site to 5.4 some roles did not see the Pages next to dashboard.
Luckely I remembered that I had the problem before and was able to find this thread again.
Administration -> Settings -> Advanced -> Pages -> Sitemap filters ->Admin ->Parameters -> IsFrontendPageManagementFilteringEnabled
Must be set to False or uses will not see the Pages next to Dashboard.
I still have no clue what this setting does and why its true by default.