Currently, there is no such built-in functionality in Sitefinity.
However, thank you for your feature request, we have added it in our ToDo list.
Actually, there is a way to implement a similar functionality by modifying ~/Sitefinity/Admin/uplctrls.aspx
page, which is responsible to load the ControlUploader control. For example, you could check the Roles for the current user in the page load handler and depending on the result, hide or show the ControlUploader control.
Hope this is helpful.
the Telerik team