Welp, I think I have a pretty solid solution to my Sitefinity build. It took awhile but found some great links and thought I'd share what I did incase someone else is looking around for an approach to use (definitely not the only way to do this).
First, if you're new to Sass, this is a great basic guide to help you out:
Second, this is a solid guide on getting css files compiled from scss files:
I ended up using the Mindscape Web Workbench extension. Though I have noticed Visual Studio crawwwwwwwls when you're working with scss files. So while it works, you may be more efficient by editing your scss files through a separate editor and just save them in Visual Studio so they compile down to css files.
If you're not big on using Mindscape Web Workbench then you may have luck using Web Essentials 2013 for Update 2. It never worked for me in Visual Studio 2013, I kept getting an error about not finding files when it was trying to compile the scss files. I tried setting the option to use Ruby as the services that compiles the scss files but that still didn't know. Pasting this SO article here for others that may have success with it.
Lastly, this article describes bundling and minification support in Visual Studio 2013:
Using this I was able to minify and bundle the css files that were compiled from scss files during the project compilation.
Here's my project directory setup:
~/ResourcePackages/MyResourcePackage/assets/sass/*.css (compiled from scss files)
And within the default.cshtml layout I am able to reference them like this:
<link href="@Url.WidgetContent("~/ResourcePackages/MyResourcePackage/assets/stylesBundle")" media="screen" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
Hopefully this helps people that come to this post wondering how to implement some features into Sitefinity.