Based on the information for the issue so far I can `t pinpoint the cause of the problem and the confirmation that page templates publish is successful means the workflow settings for the site work and the workflow is not an issue.
Please test to create new page wile in the process you keep open firebug or chrome developer tool and examining the Net/Network tab to see if a service fails prior to publishing the page.
Test creating a page page that doesn`t use a template to see if the template (if custom template is used) is causing interference with the page and resulting in this break.
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