The issue is really strange. Since it is not reproduced when running the project locally and since there are no error logs in the ~/App_Data/Sitefinity/Logs folder I assume that the issue might be caused by your environment settings.
Can you please double check the following article
from our documentation and make sure that you have configured IIS properly. In the above article you can download and execute PowerShell script in order to make sure that all the needed Windows features are turned on and IIS is configured properly to host SItefinity projects.
Can you please also make sure that the connection string points to the correct database.
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