There's really no need to add such folders to robots.txt, regardless of which CMS or operating system you're using. Search engines start crawling at your homepage, or even another page, and simply follow links from there. They are not interested in anything else but pages and assets like images, videos, etc. Excluding a folder like \bin or \Templates does not make a difference.
The less you exclude the better it is. A few years ago there was some concern that excluding css files was actually harmful as search engines could think you had something to hide. Not sure if that's still the case, but in any case there is no need to block specific folders or scripts.
Perhaps someone else can provide a list of folders you can exclude. I don't have one as I never did it, and never had an issue with search engines either ;-)
Note that robots.txt is just a suggestion to search engines. It does not guarantee anything. If there are files that are not to been seen to the public, they need to be password protected.