anthony, you can certainly associate content with taxonomy using taxonomy, which has its own content managers, depending if you are using Flat taxonomy (tags)
, or hierarchical taxonomy (categories)
Using the TaxonomyManagers you can create the taxonomies you require programmatically (or you can just create them in the GUI of Sitefinity).
Then programmatically, you can associate content items with those existing taxonomies using the Organizer property of a content item.
for more on how this is done, take a look at this documentation article: Associating a content item with a Taxon
hope this is helpful!